Garden City 4
Principe van een Garden City
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Garden cities were the brainchild of Sir Ebenezer Howard, a native of London and born to a middle class family. He pursued a variety of careers including farming, office work and a lifetime of various inventions. A deep thinker, Howard published two editions of his work: To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform and Garden Cities of Tomorrow.
The pollution and overcrowding that resulted from the industrial revolution generated Howard's interest in finding solutions to modern social ills. Howard wanted to fit a fully functioning community into a compact, self-sustaining and easily replicable design. The pattern was focused on a central hub of industrial and commercial activity with branches stemming from the center.
This organic type of growth was to house no more than 30,000 people in approximately 6,000 acres. A main transportation route connected each branch. Stops were located in the center of activity, connecting each area.
All income levels were to be represented. Low and upper class citizens would find suitable housing fairly close to each other. However, private ownership of land was not provided for. The monies for rent first paid the debts of construction and infrastructure before being reinvested into the community. There were other big differences.
Businesses were monopolistic in garden cities. As new growth happened, the same owners were to franchise into the new hubs. Government buildings were held in special regard and were given the most accessible and prominent locations. Farmland was also held in high regard totaling over three-quarters of the land.
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